Stability and control are much more complex for an airplane, which can move freely in three dimensions, than a vechicle in land like cars or in water like boats , which only move in two dimensions . A change any one motion can affect other two.
Four forces of flight are
- Lift – upward
- Drag – backward
- Weight (gravity) – downward
- Thrust – forward
How planes lift by their wings ?
Airplane wings are shaped to make air move faster over the top of the wing. When air moves faster, the pressure of the air decreases. So the pressure on the top of the wing is less than the pressure on the bottom of the wing. The difference in pressure creates a force on the wing that lifts the wing up into the air.
LAWS OF MOTION :
SIR Issac Newton proposed three laws of motion in 1665 which is eligible for all matter .
1st LAW OF MOTION
An object in rest will tend to be in rest until an external force is applied . An object in motion will not tend to stop or change its direction until an external force is applied.
2nd LAW OF MOTION
The acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables – the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object. The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the net force acting upon the object, and inversely upon the mass of the object. As the force acting upon an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is increased. As the mass of an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is decreased.
3rd LAW OF MOTION
For Every action has There is an equal and opposite reaction.In other words, if object A exerts a force on object B, then object B also exerts an equal and opposite force on object A. Notice that the forces are exerted on different objects.
How does a Pilot Control the Plane?
- Let’s pretend that our arms are wings. If we place one wing down and one wing up we can use the roll to change the direction of the plane.
- We are helping to turn the plane by yawing toward one side. If we raise our nose, like a pilot can raise the nose of the plane, we are raising the pitch of the plane. All these dimensions together combine to control the flight of the plane.
- A pilot of a plane has special controls that can be used to fly the plane. There are levers and buttons that the pilot can push to change the yaw, pitch and roll of the plane.
- The pilot controls the engine power using the throttle. Pushing the throttle increases power, and pulling it decreases power.
- The ailerons raise and lower the wings. The pilot controls the roll of the plane by raising one aileron or the other with a control wheel. Turning the control wheel clockwise raises the right aileron and lowers the left aileron, which rolls the aircraft to the right. To turn the airplane, the pilot uses the ailerons to tilt the wings in the desired direction.
- Rotation around the front-to-back axis is called ROLL.
- The rudder works to control the yaw of the plane. The pilot moves rudder left and right, with left and right pedals. Pressing the right rudder pedal moves the rudder to the right. This yaws the aircraft to the right. A pilot usually uses the rudder along with the ailerons to turn the airplane .
- Rotation around the vertical axis is called YAW
- The elevators which are on the tail section are used to control the pitch of the plane. A pilot uses a control wheel to raise and lower the elevators, by moving it forward to back ward. Lowering the elevators makes the plane nose go down and allows the plane to go down. By raising the elevators the pilot can make the plane go up.
- Rotation around the side-to-side axis is called PITCH.
- The pilot of the plane pushes the top of the rudder pedals to use the brakes. The brakes are used when the plane is on the ground to slow down the plane and get ready for stopping it. The top of the left rudder controls the left brake and the top of the right pedal controls the right brake.
- NORMAL SPEED REQUIRED FOR AN AIRCRAFT TO FLY OR TAKE OFF is 240 – 285km/hr
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